Classification of glass

- Mar 29, 2018 -

Glass is generally classified into oxide glass and non-oxide glass by main components. Non-oxide glasses are few in variety and quantity, mainly chalcogenide glass and halide glass. The anion of chalcogenide glass is mostly sulfur, selenium, tellurium, etc. It can cut off short-wavelength light and pass through yellow and red light, as well as near and far infrared light, its resistance is low, and it has switching and memory characteristics. Halide glass has a low refractive index, low dispersion, and is often used as an optical glass. The oxide glass is further classified into silicate glass, borate glass, phosphate glass, and the like. Silicate glass refers to glass whose basic component is SiO2. It has many varieties and is widely used. According to the different content of SiO2 and alkali metal and alkaline earth metal oxide in glass, it is divided into: 1 quartz glass. SiO2 content is more than 99.5%, thermal expansion coefficient is low, high temperature resistance, good chemical stability, transparent UV light and infrared light, high melting temperature, high viscosity, difficult to form. Used in semiconductors, electric light sources, light guide communications, lasers, and other optical and optical instruments. 2 high silica glass. The SiO2 content is about 96% and its properties are similar to that of quartz glass. 3 soda-lime glass. With SiO2 content as the main component, it also contains 15% Na2O and 16% CaO. The cost is low, it is easy to form, suitable for large-scale production, and its output accounts for 90% of the utility glass. Can produce glass jars, flat glass, utensils, light bulbs and so on. 4 lead silicate glass. The main components are SiO2 and PbO, which have unique high refractive index and high volume resistance, and have good wettability with metals. They can be used to manufacture light bulbs, vacuum tube columns, crystal glassware, and Flint optical glass. Lead glass containing a large amount of PbO can block X-rays and gamma rays. 5 aluminosilicate glass. With SiO2 and Al2O3 as the main components, the softening deformation temperature is high, and it is used in making discharge bulbs, high-temperature glass thermometers, chemical combustion tubes, and glass fibers. 6 borosilicate glass. With SiO2 and B2O3 as the main components, it has good heat resistance and chemical stability and is used to make cooking utensils, laboratory instruments, and metal welding glass. Borosilicate glass is mainly composed of B2O3 and has a low melting temperature to resist sodium vapor corrosion. Rare earth-containing borate glass has a high refractive index and low dispersion, and is a new type of optical glass. Phosphate glass with P2O5 as the main component, low refractive index, low dispersion, used in optical instruments. (1) Ordinary glass (Na2SiO3, CaSiO3, SiO2, or Na2O·CaO·6SiO2) (2) Quartz glass (Glass made of pure quartz as the main raw material, and the composition is only SiO2) (3) Tempered glass (with ordinary glass) Same composition) (4) Potassium glass (K2O, CaO, SiO2) (5) Borate glass (SiO2, B2O3) (6) Colored glass (In the ordinary glass manufacturing process, some metal oxides are added. Cu2O—Red; CuO - blue-green; CdO - light yellow; CO2O3 - blue; Ni2O3 - dark green; MnO2 - purple; colloidal Au - red; colloidal Ag - yellow) (7) color-changing glass (with rare earth elements Oxide as a colorant of advanced colored glass) (8) Optical glass (In the ordinary borosilicate glass raw materials, add a small amount of light sensitive substances, such as AgCl, AgBr, etc., and then add a very small amount of sensitizer, Such as CuO, etc., make the glass more sensitive to light. (9) Rainbow glass (made by adding a lot of fluoride, a small amount of sensitizer and bromide in common glass raw materials) (10) Protective glass (in ordinary glass The manufacturing process adds appropriate auxiliary materials to protect people from the effects of strong light, strong heat, or radiation.For example, gray - dichromate, iron oxide absorbs ultraviolet light and partially visible light, blue green - oxidation Nickel, ferrous oxide absorbs infrared and partially visible light; lead glass - lead oxide absorbs x-rays and r-rays; dark blue - dichromate, ferrous oxide, iron oxide absorbs ultraviolet light, infrared light, and most visible light; added Cadmium oxide and boron oxide absorb neutron flux.(11) Glass-ceramics (also known as crystallized glass or glass-ceramics) are made by adding nucleus such as gold, silver, and copper to ordinary glass, instead of stainless steel and gemstones, they are used as radomes. (12) Glass fiber (fibers with a diameter of several micrometers to several thousand micrometers, drawn or blown from molten glass, with the same composition as glass) (13) Glass fiber (ie, long glass fiber) (14) Fiberglass (Strength-like reinforced plastics obtained by compounding epoxy resin with glass fiber) (15)Cellophane (transparent cellulose made from viscose solution) Membrane) (16) An aqueous solution of water glass (Na2SiO3), which is named after part of the components in common glass) (17) Metallic glass (Glass metal, usually made of rapidly cooled molten metal) (18) Firefly Stone (fluorite) (colorless and transparent CaF2, used as a prism and lens in optical instruments)

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